Nilo

Nilo


Para el estado de Sudán véase Río Nilo (estado).

Nilo

El Nilo en Asuán
Longitud 6.671 km
Altitud de la fuente 1.134 msnm
Caudal medio 2.830 m3/s
Superficie de la cuenca 3.400.000 km2
País que atraviesa Uganda, Sudán y Egipto
Desemboca en Mediterráneo
Ancho de desembocadura Delta del Nilo
Río - Hidrología

El río Nilo (النيل en árabe) está situado en el nordeste de África, nace en Burundi, en el río Kagera y desde su principal fuente, el lago Victoria en África central, fluye a través de Uganda, Sudán y Egipto, desembocando en el mar Mediterráneo formando un amplio delta. El Nilo toma su actual configuración al final de la Era Terciaria, junto con la formación del Mediterráneo. Es el segundo río más largo del mundo, sólo superado por el Amazonas.[1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Egipto es un don del Nilo (Heródoto)

El Nilo. National Geographic Magazine, Volumen 31 (1917)
El Nilo. National Geographic Magazine, Volumen 31 (1917)

El río Nilo desempeñó un papel crucial en la formación de la civilización egipcia; es una fuente inagotable de recursos; gracias a las inundaciones anuales, la tierra que bordea el río se torna muy fértil. Los egipcios podían cultivar cosechas junto al Nilo, proporcionando abundante alimento a la población. También, el agua del Nilo, atrajo a animales como el búfalo de agua; los persas introdujeron el camello, en el siglo VII adC. Estos animales podían proporcionar leche y carne y, domesticados, ser utilizados para arar y viajar por el desierto. El agua era vital para la población y el ganado. El Nilo fue también utilizado como vía fluvial para el transporte de personas y mercancías.

La sociedad egipcia era de las mejor estructuradas de la historia, de hecho, sobrepasó a muchas sociedades modernas. Esta estabilidad era resultado de la fertilidad del Nilo. El Nilo también proporcionaba abundante pescado, papiro, irrigaba cultivos de lino, cebada y trigo, un recurso muy importante, sobre todo porque en el Próximo Oriente surgían periódicamente épocas de hambruna, pues las cosechas solían ser irregulares. Un sistema de alianzas aseguró la relación que Egipto mantenía con otras poblaciones, y contribuyó frecuentemente a dotar de estabilidad económica a Egipto.

 

Partes del Nilo

Tradicionalmente, se ha dividido en cuatro partes bien diferenciadas:

El Nilo Superior, desde las fuentes en el lago Victoria, siendo la principal la del Kasumo (en su curso inferior se denomina Kagera), hasta la confluencia con el Nilo Azul en Jartum. Es la región donde recibe a todos sus tributarios, excepto el Atbara, que no es de corriente continua.

El Alto Nilo o Bahr-al-Yabal, a partir del lago Alberto (Uganda), que va a parar al lago Nilo, en el que confluye también el Barh el-Gazel; desde allí (Nilo Blanco propiamente dicho) sigue descendiendo hasta llegar a Jartum, donde se le une el Nilo Azul, proveniente de los Alpes abisinios y cargado de sus característicos limos.

mportancia socio-económica del Nilo

El Nilo a su paso por Luxor.
El Nilo a su paso por Luxor.

El Nilo tiene una enorme trascendencia socio-económica, pues la fertilidad de su cuenca está en relación directa con las crecidas anuales y el consiguiente riego obligado de miles de hectáreas. Su mecanismo, bien estudiado en la actualidad, proviene de su gran extensión en latitud. El Nilo Blanco recoge en Uganda los máximos de lluvia de primavera y verano, de modo que sus claras aguas representan el 83% en el mes de mayo en Asuán. Son las primeras en llegar a Egipto, cuando el nivel comienza a subir, pero no significan allí, en el periodo de aguas altas, más que el 10% del caudal total en el mes de septiembre. Por el contrario, el Nilo Azul, procedente de las montañas etíopes, no representa más que el 17% del caudal del estiaje, pero sus aguas, cargadas de limos rojos, que resultan de la alteración de los basaltos, crecen bruscamente, llegan a Egipto en julio, contienen el recorrido de las aguas del Nilo Blanco y suponen el 68% del caudal de las aguas altas en el mes de septiembre. El Atbara, que no aporta nada en la época del estiaje, contiene el 22% del caudal en aguas altas de Asuán.

 

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